Pump faking on a free throw attempt is absolutely against the rules in basketball. I know from my years of obsessively analyzing stats and video that trying to draw defenders off with an exaggerated fake motion when on the line will get you whistled for a violation. Read on as I leverage my hoops knowledge to break down everything you need to know about free throw rules, technique, and data on shooting accuracy across the NBA and NCAA.
What Exactly is a "Pump Fake" in Basketball?
We‘ve all seen it – the shooter thrusts the ball upwards but stops short before actually releasing it. This is known as a "pump fake," "shot fake," or sometimes "foot fake" in basketball lingo. It‘s a move made legendary by players like Michael Jordan as an effective way to get defenders leaning and off balance.
But there‘s a time and place for pump faking. And I can definitively say as a stathead who regularly participates in online basketball forums that on a free throw you cannot intentionally fake your shot.
Here‘s a more detailed definition:
- A pump fake involves beginning the upward shooting motion but stopping abruptly before the feet ever leave the floor.
- This is done by either stopping the motion once the ball reaches the peak point over the head or by pausing just as the knees begin to extend upward.
- An effective pump fake will cause the defender to jump vertically to contest a shot that isn‘t actually coming. This lets the offensive player blow by or pivot into an open look.
- On free throws, the shooter is required to continue the motion once it has started and release the actual shot. Stopping or hesitating after the upward launch is illegal.
So in essence, you can‘t "punk" the defense by faking them out when you‘re at the charity stripe. Trust me, I‘ve been yelled at enough times by refs at my local rec league who assumed I knew that rule!
NBA Officials Take Pump Faking Very Seriously
I decided to dig into the NBA rule book like I often do during late night Reddit debates to get the exact language on free throw pump fakes:
According to Rule 9-Section 1-Article 7:
"The free throw shooter shall not purposely fake a free throw attempt. PENALTY: This is a violation by the shooter on all free throw attempts and a double violation should not be called if an opponent violates any free throw rules."
So in plain English, trying to draw the defense offsides by faking a free throw is strictly prohibited. NBA officials will call both offensive fouls and technicals if they sense players deliberately breaking this rule.
Over the years, vigilant refereeing has saved the free throw from turning into a farce of endless pump fakes and exaggerated routines. The NBA does not mess around in enforcing this.
Notable Pump Fake Violations
There have been some famous pump fake incidents over the years where players got slapped with rare violations:
- In 2021, Atlanta‘s Trae Young notoriously tried to bait the Clippers into the lane early by hesitating on his free throw routine. The offensive violation gave the ball back to LA.
- Rajon Rondo committed the same fake free throw violation during the 2008 Finals as a Boston rookie. He pump faked to draw a defensive call but instead the refs whistled him for the illegal move.
- Dwight Howard is known for his exaggerated pump fake routines that irk officials. He‘s been called for multiple violations over his career for taking it too far.
So remember – just because NBA players try to get away with it doesn‘t mean pump faking free throws is actually legal now! The risk of a turnover is not worth it.
Are Other Types of Shot Fakes Legal in Basketball?
This is where we get into the subtle differences in basketball terminology. While you cannot pump or shot fake on free throws, there are other types of fakes that are completely legal parts of the game:
- Head fakes: Exaggerated head and shoulder movements side-to-side or up-and-down are very legal. Defenders often bite on these.
- Ball fakes: Quickly moving the ball in your hands to fake a pass or shot is allowed. Great for getting defenders to closeout.
- Jab steps: Faking a drive by stomping your lead foot forward shifts momentum.
So to summarize:
- No pump or shot fakes on free throws
- Yes to head, ball, and jab fakes during live play
It‘s all about knowing when and how you can use certain moves. As someone who loves poring over the rule book, I‘ve got you covered!
Why Exactly is Pump Faking Illegal on Free Throws?
There‘s two main reasons why players can‘t pump fake on the line:
1. Prevent drawing defensive lane violations
Defenders must wait until the actual release before entering the paint on a free throw. Pump faking tries to fool them into stepping in early.
2. Maintain proper pace of play
The NBA doesn‘t want games bogged down by excessive delays and antics. Lengthy pump fake routines slow down the action.
In essence, banning fakes on free throws helps prevent players from manipulating the defense while also keeping the tempo moving fluidly. This streamlines games while still allowing enough creativity and fakes during live play.
Free Throw Distance – NBA vs NCAA vs High School
Before getting into proper technique, let‘s breakdown the different free throw distances by level:
- 15 feet from backboard to foul line
- 19 feet from baseline to foul line
NCAA Men‘s Basketball
- 15 feet from backboard
- 19 feet, 9 inches from baseline
High School Basketball
- 15 feet from backboard
- 19 feet, 5 inches from baseline
The hoop height is 10 feet at each level. So while the NCAA line is slightly farther back than the NBA‘s, high school sits in between the two distances.
This means players must master a 15-19 foot set shot from an elevated release point. No wonder some pros struggle at the line!
Proper Free Throw Shooting Form and Technique
Perfecting textbook shooting form takes endless repetition and practice. But here are some common elements the best shooters have:
- Feet shoulder-width apart
- Toes evenly lined up with edge of the foul line
- Smooth upward motion through the shooting pocket
- Elbow tucked in at 90 degree angle
- Wrist flicked forward for perfect arc
- Ball launched from pads of fingers, not palm
- Follow-through held until ball hits rim
- Dribble ball few times to settle in
- Take deep breathes to relax
- Visualize the shot going in
Building muscle memory through a repetitive routine is key. Analyzing shooters‘ forms on film helps ingrain proper mechanics.
Free Throw Shooting Percentages in the NBA
Now onto the numbers – one of my favorite topics to debate as a basketball nerd. Here are some key NBA free throw shooting statistics:
- The league average FT% in 2021-22 was 77.2% – on par with recent seasons
- The all-time highest career FT% belongs to Steve Nash at 90.4%
- Current player Jose Calderon leads active players in career FT% at 87.6%
- Stephen Curry holds the best single-season FT% ever at 91.6% in 2018-19
Here‘s a table showing the top 10 NBA players by career free throw percentage along with the number of attempts:
|Free Throws Made
|Free Throws Attempted
You can see how valuable a repeatable, efficient free throw stroke is for scoring longevity. Many all-time legends like Larry Bird, Reggie Miller, and Dirk Nowitzki were also foul shooting masters.
NCAA Division I Men‘s Basketball Free Throw Stats
The NCAA level provides great insights into shooting range limits and development. Here are some key men‘s D1 free throw statistics:
- The 2020-21 team FT% average was 72.2%
- The highest career FT% ever belongs to Fletcher Magee at 93.5%
- Kelvin Sampson has the most career makes with 626 FTM
- Tyler Hansbrough attempted the most free throws with 962 FTA
- UConn owns the highest team FT% for a season at 81.6%
Again, we see that range extends well beyond the NBA line. And teams like UConn have shown that collective foul shooting mastery can be cultivated at the college level.
Common Free Throw Violations and Penalties
Outside of pump fakes, there are other free throw violations that referees watch for:
- Lane violation: Player enters lane before release. Violation on defense.
- Stepping over line: Nullifies shot. Next shooter gets technical foul shots.
- Goaltending: Slapping ball on rim. Two points awarded.
- Double violation: Both teams break rules. Original free throw retaken.
Officials have to monitor a lot during free throws. Understanding rules helps coaches drill proper technique and adherence in practice.
Best Practices for Improving Free Throw Shooting
Here are some tips I‘ve learned from coaches and top shooters on mastering the art of the free throw:
- Build a consistent routine of preparation and visualization
- Use deep breathing techniques to stay relaxed
- Maintain proper form through endless repetition
- Chart long-term shooting percentages to diagnose flaws
- Practice during fatigued game situations
- Use film study to analyze and correct mechanics
- Believe every shot will go in through mental focus
Free throw excellence requires determination and dedication to keep honing the craft. But it delivers major dividends in tightly contested games.
After digging into the rule book and statistics, I can definitively say that pump faking free throws is very illegal. NBA referees will call violations for exaggerating the shooting motion at the line. While other shot fakes are allowed during live play, the NBA bans fakes on free throws to prevent manipulation and maintain game flow.
Shooting free throws requires mastering proper technique through extensive practice. By analyzing data and film, players can diagnose flaws and build more efficient strokes. Developing this fundamental skill is crucial for scoring consistency. So next time you‘re at the line, use proper form and avoid the urge to pump fake!